He not only restores the car to its original condition, but he overhauls the engine, modifying it to obtain maximum performance. He invites a couple of friends to cruise around the streets of Dallas with him, showing off his handiwork. They stop at a local hangout for hamburgers and meet another young man, who also has a high performance automobile. Each begins to boast that his car is faster than that of his rival. Eventually, they race down a major street at high speed. One young man presses his car beyond its limits, and it careens out of control, striking other automobiles, and eventually killing a young mother and her child, standing in their front yard talking with friends.
The young man responsible for the death of these two innocent people did not set out that night to kill someone with his car. He did, however, want to show off.
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He wanted others to see how well he had transformed a tired old car into a beautiful muscle machine. He wanted to impress others with how fast his car was, and how skilled he was as a driver. How many times in history has something like this happened? The unintentional consequences of a foolish action may be far greater than one would have ever imagined. This past April a cocky and over-zealous pilot maneuvered his fighter too close to the propellers of a U. The events that followed triggered a growing rift in the relationship of the United States and China. This is precisely what happens in 1 Kings 12 and its parallel text in 2 Chronicles The people made a simple and reasonable request of Rehoboam, and after consulting with others, this would-be king arrogantly rejected it.
The people renounced him as their king and went their way. Reconciliation might have occurred had Rehoboam not acted foolishly. The result was a divided kingdom. This unintended consequence would shape the history of the nation to this very day. The northern kingdom, composed of ten tribes, will be known as Israel. Samaria will eventually become its capital and its dynasties will frequently change.
At times, the two kingdoms will be at war with each other, and at other times they will make certain alliances. The glorious days of the united kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon are gone. The northern kingdom will consistently have evil kings and behave wickedly. They will be the first to be scattered in judgment. The southern kingdom will have its good kings and its wicked ones, and eventually Judah will be taken into captivity by the Babylonians. For everything that was written in former times was written for our instruction, so that through endurance and through encouragement of the scriptures we may have hope Romans The united kingdom lasted the length of the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon.
He did not wait for Samuel at Gilgal but went ahead to offer sacrifices, fearing his soldiers would desert him 1 Samuel Later, Saul failed to totally annihilate the Amalekites. After the death of Saul and his sons at the hand of the Philistines, David was anointed king, first over Judah and then later over all Israel.
David was a man with a heart for God. His great failure came when he sinned with regard to Bathsheba and Uriah, her husband. While he repented and was forgiven, he, his family, and his kingdom suffered some very painful consequences. Eventually Absalom returned to Israel and later succeeded in overthrowing his father David. Why are you so upset about this? Or have we misappropriated anything for our own use?
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Why do you want to curse us? His sin was the reason for the division of the united kingdom.
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In our next section, we will look more carefully at the role Solomon played in the division of the kingdom, along with Rehoboam and Jeroboam. There are three major participants in the events which led to the division of the united kingdom: Solomon, Jeroboam, and Rehoboam. We will briefly look at the part each of these men played in the division of the kingdom. God appeared to Solomon two times before his fall.
Solomon asked for wisdom. God granted him not only wisdom, but also fame, great power, and incredible wealth. He also made it clear that Solomon was to keep His instructions:. The second appearance of God to Solomon came after the dedication of the temple. God promised that His presence would be with the nation Israel in the temple, but with these warnings:.
I have consecrated this temple you built by making it my permanent home; I will be constantly present there. Do everything I commanded and obey my rules and regulations. They embraced other gods whom they worshiped and served. From among your fellow citizens you must appoint a king—you may not designate a foreigner who is not one of your fellow Israelites.
His downfall came late in his life.
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Solomon married many foreign wives, and eventually his heart was turned to worship their pagan gods:. If you do, they will surely shift your allegiance to their gods. God raised up men who opposed Solomon in his lifetime. The first of these opponents was Hadad the Edomite 1 Kings One wonders why so much detail is given about him, especially regarding his connection with Egypt.
While David was king of Israel, Joab slaughtered every male in Edom, but somehow Hadad, who was a young lad at that time, escaped to Egypt. Nevertheless, when Hadad learned that David and Joab were dead, he asked to return to his homeland. Reluctantly, Pharaoh let him go. The connection with Egypt sounds too much like Joseph and also a bit like Moses. Why are we given all these details? I am inclined to conclude that God wants us to see this connection. Egypt was one of the superpowers of ancient times. Now, it would seem, God was once again using Egypt to protect Hadad, so that he could be an instrument of divine discipline.
Not nearly as much detail is given concerning Rezon. He organized a band of raiders, and when David sought to kill him, he fled to Damascus. One does not get the impression that Jeroboam was a troublemaker, out for trouble. It appears, rather, that Solomon himself created his own problems by the way he dealt with this fellow.
Jeroboam was an Ephraimite, the son of a widow. He was a very talented and skillful worker. When Solomon commenced the construction of a terrace and was closing the gap in the wall surrounding his palace, Jeroboam was one of his workers. Solomon recognized his abilities and promoted him to leader of the work crew of the tribe of Joseph. It was at this time that the prophet Ahijah privately took Jeroboam aside and informed him that he would be given ten of the tribes of Israel to lead as king.
He underscored this prophecy by tearing his new robe into 12 pieces, and then giving Jeroboam 10 of them. He also indicated that at some time in the future the nation would once again be reunited This would be some time in the more distant future, however. God promised Jeroboam great success as the first king of Israel the ten northern tribes of Israel , but only on the condition that Jeroboam walked in the steps of David:.
I will allow him to be ruler for the rest of his life for the sake of my chosen servant David who kept my commandments and rules. Then I will be with you and establish for you a lasting dynasty, as I did for David; I will give you Israel. He stayed in Egypt until Solomon died 1 Kings It is amazing that the prophet makes a promise very much like the Davidic Covenant. Time will reveal that Jeroboam is not like David, and his kingdom will not last. It would appear that Solomon somehow heard of the prophecy of Ahijah — either that or Solomon simply became jealous of Jeroboam.
For one reason or another, Solomon sets out to kill Jeroboam, forcing him to flee to Egypt. There, Jeroboam finds refuge, not unlike Hadad, the Edomite. In time, Shishak, king of Egypt, will come to the aid of Jeroboam when he returns to Israel. There is no indication of repentance on his part. He seems to stay the same wicked course until the day of his death.
The scene is now set for the division of the kingdom, which occurs shortly after the death of Solomon. All Israel gathered at Shechem to make Rehoboam their next king. The people had sent word to Jeroboam in Egypt, asking him to return to Israel. He gathered with the Israelites at Shechem to make Rehoboam king. Whether Jeroboam served as their spokesman is not indicated, but we do know that he was present. The people had only one request to make of Rehoboam, and they seem to have made it in a respectful and submissive manner: The words of warning, spoken years before by the prophet Samuel, were now coming true:.
Solomon had become heavy-handed with them.
The Lands of Saul, David, and Solomon
Rehoboam had the presence of mind to ask for time to seek counsel. He promised to meet with the people and to convey his decision in three days. This section of the biblical text, and the bulk of the remainder of the Books of Samuel, is thought by textual critics to belong to a single large source known as the Court History of David. Although reflecting the political bias of the kingdom of Judah following the destruction of Israel , the source remains somewhat more neutral than the pro- and antimonarchical sources comprising earlier parts of the text. Israel and Judah are portrayed in this source as quite distinct kingdoms.
Prior to the ascension of Saul, the city of Shiloh is seen as the national capital , at least in the religious sense, a claim that from an archaeological standpoint is considered plausible. Throughout the monarchy of Saul, the capital is located in Gibeah. After Saul's death, Ishbaal rules over the kingdom of Israel from Mahanaim , while David establishes the capital of the kingdom of Judah in Hebron.
Following the civil war with Saul, David forges a strong and unified Israelite monarchy, reigning c. In the biblical account, David embarks on successful military campaigns against the enemies of Judah and Israel, defeating such regional entities as the Philistines to secure his borders. Israel grows from kingdom to empire, its sphere of influence—militarily and politically—expanding to control the weaker client states of Philistia , Moab , Edom and Ammon , with Aramaean city-states Aram-Zobah and Aram-Damascus becoming vassal states.
David is succeeded by his son Solomon , who obtains the throne in a somewhat disreputable manner from rival claimant Adonijah , his elder brother. Solomon embarks on an aggressive campaign of public building, erecting the First Temple in Jerusalem with assistance from the King of Tyre , with whom he has maintained the strong alliance forged by his father.
Solomon goes on to rebuild numerous major cities, including Megiddo , Hazor , and Gezer. Some scholars have attributed aspects of archaeological remains excavated from this sites, including six-chambered gates and ashlar palaces, to this building programme. However, excavation teams at Meggido later established that these structures are from different time periods. Yigael Yadin subsequently concluded that the stables once believed to have served Solomon's vast collection of horses were actually built by King Ahab in the 9th century BCE.
Following Solomon's death in c.
When Solomon's successor Rehoboam dealt tactlessly with economic complaints of the northern tribes, in about BCE there are differences of opinion as to the actual year the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah split into two kingdoms: Many alternative chronologies have been suggested, and there is no ultimate consensus between the different factions and scholarly disciplines concerned with this period, as to when it is depicted as having begun or when it ended.
Most bibical scholars follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele , or the newer chronology of Gershon Galil , all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.
Thiele's chronology generally corresponds with Galil's chronology below with a difference of at most one year. In contemporary scholarship the united monarchy is generally held to be a literary construction and not a historical reality, due to the lack of archeological evidence for it. It is generally accepted that a "House of David" existed, but many believe that David could have only been the monarch or chieftain of Judah, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development.
Oded Lipschits wrote in the Jewish Study Bible that. The archeological evidence also does not support the existence of a united monarchy under David and Solomon as described in the Bible, so the rubric of "united monarchy" is best abandoned, although it remains useful for discussing how the Bible views the Israelite past. According to Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman , authors of The Bible Unearthed , ideas of a united monarchy are not accurate history but rather "creative expressions of a powerful religious reform movement," possibly "based on certain historical kernels.
He accepts the historicity of David and Solomon but cautions that "[t]hey must be seen. Excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa , an Iron Age site located in Judah, found an urbanized settlement radiocarbon dated well before scholars such as Finklestein suggest urbanization began in Judah, supporting existence of a Judahite kingdom. The Israel Antiquities Authority stated: It can no longer be argued that the Kingdom of Judah developed only in the late eighth century BCE or at some other later date. In August , Israeli archaeologists discovered massive fortifications in the ruins of the ancient city of Gath , supposed birthplace of Goliath.
The size of the fortifications show Gath to have been a very large city in the 10th century BCE, perhaps the largest in Canaan at the time. The professor leading the dig, Aren Maeir , estimated that Gath was as much as four times the size of contemporary Jerusalem, casting doubt that David's kingdom could have been as powerful as described in the Bible. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the modern country, see State of Israel. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Then proclaimed as king by the people after the battle with the Ammonites. His reign started out as promising but went downhill after his disobedience during the war with the Philistines and Amalekites. He was undoubtedly a courageous leader in battle and a good military strategist, but he was also known as someone who was mentally unstable.
His erratic behavior and paranoid tendencies caused him to lose kingship. He reigned approximately 42 years or 40 years , and it ended when he, along with his sons, died in the battle of Mount Gilboa against the Philistines. Saul was rejected by the Lord for his disobedience after he failed in purging the Amalekites by sparing King Agag and keeping the booty. Samuel mourned for Saul, but the Lord commanded him to anoint David as a replacement. David became well-known when he killed the giant Philistine warrior Goliath. David also had many opportunities when he could easily have killed Saul but did not.
David first ruled in Hebron for seven years and six months. He made significant military victories against the Philistines, Moabites , Ammonites, Edomites , and Arameans 2 Samuel 8. However, he was also known by civil war and strife in his own household. Solomon, with the help of his mother Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, was appointed as king when his father died. Which he reaped from the military victories of his father.
His period was marked by prosperity and relative peace. Solomon was known for his wisdom and writings which were recorded in Proverbs and Song of Songs.